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  1. Build a 3-D model (mesh) of the air
  2. prescribe an initial wind field
  3. compute final mass/momentum conserving wind field.
  • Requires a good estimate of the initial wind field
  • Adjusts for terrain (conservation of mass/momentum)
  • Parameterizations for some other effects (e.g., diurnal slope flows)

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  • No moisture/latent heat effects, steady-state, no conservation of energy
  • Conservation of momentum is optional
  • Some thermal energy parameterizations
  • diurnal slope flows, non-neutral atmospheric stability


  • Fast
  • low computational requirements
  • simple to run
  • high spatial resolution


  • No conservation of energy or large-scale/complex flow effects (e.g., land-sea breezes, thunderstorms)

More Information

Terrain Resolution

WindNinja Solvers

Thermal Paramaterizations